Explained – Music – FULL EPISODE – Netflix

Speaker 1: So one of the things we do is we’ll just play this sound sequence and then we ask them to rate on a scale from one to five how much it sounded exactly like environmental sound or exactly like music the first time. It sounds pretty straightforwardly like environmental sound to them. It’s like three or four repetitions in and everyone starts laughing. I mean, rating just gets higher and higher

Speaker 2: music starts a sound, but something happens in the brain and it transforms. Repetition is one thing that can

Speaker 1: flick the switch with sound signals exactly the same. Yeah, the experience feels really different,

Speaker 2: but this is just the start of the mystery of music. It can help people relearn how to speak. Oh, you can help patients with movement disorders like Parkinson’s disease move more fluidly.

Speaker 3: I just naturally respond to the music.

Speaker 2: Music behaves like a powerful drug on the rest of us to

Speaker 1: similar areas activated that are activated during highly pleasurable experiences pertaining to food or sex or illicit drugs.

Speaker 2: It has a deep connection to our feelings.

Speaker 1: Music itself seems to be a cultural universal. You don’t know about any known human culture that doesn’t have something that we think about as music

Speaker 2: and we found musical instruments as old as human cave paintings. Nearly every person is born with a taste for music.

Speaker 4: But as far as we know, other primates don’t really share our sense of beat. They just don’t seem to get rhythm the same way we do.

Speaker 2: So what is music? Why is it so universal among humans? How does sound become something more? Well. A world without music is hard to imagine

Speaker 5: as we live our lives. There’s always music around us, too, whether it’s something playing out of someone’s car stereo on the street, the coffee house, you’re going to the mall, the radio, it’s always around us. It’s strange when it doesn’t exist at all.

Speaker 2: Jennifer Lee is a music producer and deejay known as Cookie Monster, and she’s one of extraordinarily few hearing people who’s ever experienced a world without music.

Speaker 5: I couldn’t tell that there is a melody. It just sounded like white noise or like loud metallic noise. It was sharp that if you can’t understand music, it just becomes noise.

Speaker 2: To understand why this experience is so rare, let’s go back to before John lost music.

Speaker 5: This is one of the most simple songs I’ve ever made,

Speaker 2: but hearing a simple song isn’t simple at all.

Speaker 1: Listening to music and especially making music draws on all kinds of different faculties

Speaker 2: before we hear it all. Music is just air

Speaker 4: down starts as air vibrations, which then move our ear drums and then little bones and then finally fluid in the cochlea and it triggers hair cells to fire. It’s really wonderfully complicated

Speaker 2: and a repeating sound creates one of the most basic aspects of music rhythm.

Speaker 5: I had it looping and then it created an energy or a vibe. I was like, this sounds deep

Speaker 4: in many parts of our auditory system are very ancient and are shared with a lot of other animals.

Speaker 2: Our reptilian brain, the brain stem and cerebellum help us create the rhythmic patterns necessary to walk. That’s widespread. But what’s incredibly rare is our ability to feel upbeat tempo beats per minute.

Speaker 5: It is the most simple, most basic rhythm in our life. It is how our heart beats higher BPM songs that are faster tends to make us move faster, raises our heartbeat. It goes back to the core of who we are.

Speaker 2: Try tapping along.

Speaker 4: We predict the timing of the metronome. Clicks or taps are like very close in time to the metronome. You can’t do that by waiting for the click. You’d be reacting in late

Speaker 2: rhesus monkeys just can’t do

Speaker 4: it with lots of training. Monkeys always seem to still react rather than predict.

Speaker 2: Feeling a beat requires strong connections between parts of the brain, which are very rare in the animal world. In fact, scientists weren’t sure that any other animals could move to a beat like we do until 2009.

Speaker 4: I was just amazed when I saw this video of a cockatoo seeming to move to the beat of music.

Speaker 2: Put on the Backstreet

Unidentified: Boys and back, oh, my.

Speaker 2: So Patel put together an experiment, could snowball match the song played at different tempos,

Speaker 4: and the bottom line was he did. And this provided the first experimental evidence that another animal could move to the beat of music.

Speaker 2: And now Snowball isn’t alone. Ronan, a sea lion in California, is the first non-human mammal confirmed to really groove to Earth, Wind and fire. Bonobos are close. Evolutionary cousins can tell if there is a beat, though the jury’s out if they can synchronize to it. But the ability to tap out a beat is only one part of music. It’s a sign of peace fast. Here it is, pitch.

Speaker 4: Sure, many other animals seem to perceive pitch in terms of individual tones. They probably perceive them like we do.

Speaker 2: Many species brains, including ours, have neurons that fire at the exact frequency of the sound coming in. If you place electrodes on these three spots in your head and listen to this, the electrical signal from those electrodes would sound like this, playing multiple pitches at the same time unlocks another feature of music harmony.

Speaker 1: All these kinds of cultures tend to recognize that this relationship is special.

Speaker 4: If you ask men and women to sing in unison, what typically happens is they actually sing an octave apart.

Speaker 2: Octaves are pitches with double or half the frequency of another.

Speaker 4: That kind of sense of equivalence is very widespread in human

Speaker 2: culture, and that special relationship might explain why the opening of this song is so memorable. Well. The first two notes are an octave, why were intervals like this one are crucial? Every culture divides the space between Octaves and Descamps. Most of us remember Melody by the relative pitch, the space in between notes like this melody starting on see my new

Speaker 3: friend, I hear you are coming to like

Speaker 2: me starting on an F. It still sounds like the same melody. My new

Speaker 3: five year you are come to like

Speaker 2: me. It’s just not like this for birds.

Speaker 4: You can train them to recognize melody a formality. Be no problem. You transpose those melodies, you move them up or down in pitch. They have no idea what those things are. They completely relearn them as if they’re brand new milanes. They don’t recognize them anymore.

Speaker 2: Then there’s tambour the quality of sound that distinguishes Petch if played on a bassoon, baritone sax, or for most people perceive timbre like they perceive color. It’s a thing you can name. Lots of animals can process one or more of these components. Some types of crabs and fireflies synchronize with each other, but only at one tempo, some birds like Snowball can feel a beat but have no understanding of relative pitch. Rhesus monkeys can understand active equivalents but can’t feel beat. Combined with our capacity for language and memory, only humans put the entire puzzle together.

Unidentified: Simple. It up right out of the park.

Speaker 2: How musicians assemble these pieces triggers another aspect of music that’s as far as we know, uniquely human. It’s deep connection to our feelings. Take the song Farakka. It’s in the major scale which in Western music is associated with happy feelings,

Speaker 4: other cultures have their own ways of expressing those mood differences that are built up on easily to our major and minor system.

Speaker 2: Listen to this Bollani scan.

Speaker 1: For a Balinese person, they will really think that is quite sad,

Speaker 2: major meaning happy and minor mean sad is not

Speaker 1: universal for a Western ear. It might sound pretty happy, but Balinese will associate that with ceremonial rites and

Speaker 2: particularly cremations, but meaning accumulating based on the scale system of your culture that is universal and that meaning is built over centuries. Monteverdi wrote his lament. OHDELA Ninfa in a hundreds with a base line simply descending the mire scattered in the hundreds of years since composer after composer has used the exact same base line to express lament. And with each repetition, its meaning grows

Speaker 5: down in New Orleans

Speaker 2: so that whenever you hear, it just gets a little more powerful. You know, I feel there’s something familiar about it, but something surprising to. We hear these melodies so often that the effect becomes immediate and unconscious, music connects so many abilities that it’s very hard to lose. Only an estimated one point five percent of people are born having trouble differentiating pitches. Far fewer have trouble feeling a beat and losing music perception altogether. That’s basically unheard of. In 2015, Chen noticed her body was behaving strangely.

Speaker 5: I had this weird symptom where I couldn’t feel my foot and it just didn’t exist. It felt like a ghost. But 10 years prior, there was one neurologist that thought I could have moyamoya.

Speaker 2: Moyamoya means a puff of smoke. It’s a very rare condition where blood flow to the brain is constricted.

Speaker 3: Here’s the carotid artery marker. You see it coming up. You see how it almost disappears here. It’s almost clotted off completely. And the artery that branch here is gone. She’s not getting enough blood flow to her brain.

Speaker 5: I didn’t know if I would die the next month or 10 years from that point. So I was diagnosed in December of 2015. And in January of 2016, I had two brain surgeries a week apart from each other.

Speaker 2: Two days after the first surgery, Jan noticed something was wrong.

Speaker 5: When I woke up, I couldn’t talk anymore. I also lost my comprehension of speech so I couldn’t talk, but also suddenly couldn’t understand anyone else talking.

Speaker 3: Imagine being in a foreign country and not understanding a word was being said to you.

Speaker 5: I’ll watch Portlandia bunch when I was in recovery through that show, I realized I didn’t understand music because I couldn’t understand the intro song. See, cognitively, I knew that it was a song and then it was a washed out song and it was a song that I liked, but it didn’t register the same way. I didn’t recognize it as music

Speaker 2: to cure Jens moyamoya disease, Dr. Steinback took an order from each side of Genscape and placed it on top of each side of Jen’s brain.

Speaker 5: That piece of artery that is laying on top of your brain goes down these roots and essentially now my brain is fed from the top down and instead from the bottom up.

Speaker 2: And these routes would have been going all over the

Speaker 3: brain, so the lower processing was intact, the sounds were getting in both for music and for language

Speaker 2: at the higher levels of processing, to understand music, to speak that require the cortex or

Speaker 3: God putting together the higher level circuits was not possible. It was very, very disturbing and upsetting to her.

Speaker 2: But far more common than losing music is using it to help recover something else that’s been lost.

Speaker 1: What is it? Oh, God tries to form jurors. This is what you tell us.

Speaker 2: Former U.S. Congresswoman Gabby Giffords had to relearn how to speak after a gunshot tore through the left side of her head without much. That’s nice areas critical for speech right here. But even if they’re damaged, it’s possible to retrain the other side of the brain where more of musical processing happens to take over.

Speaker 5: All right. Let’s come up with another little song.

Speaker 4: Some of these same patients who can’t get two or three words into a phrase can sometimes sing songs fluently. Like you wouldn’t even know there’s something

Speaker 2: wrong with you. Make me happy. Well, that’s

Speaker 1: the way people are taught to sing words while tapping and then gradually kind of piggyback on that ability.

Speaker 2: And music connects to movement. We actually register beaten our brains motor system. That’s likely why it can help people

Speaker 5: with movement disorders. There’s something about hearing the music that enables me to move in a way that I wouldn’t be able to on my own.

Speaker 2: These effects make music seem almost like a superpower. That’s led to some exuberant reporting about

Speaker 5: music and listening to classical music make

Speaker 3: children smarter. Why are hospitals across the nation handing out a million Mozart recordings a month? Why not all Mozart to add a point or two to the IQ?

Speaker 2: It doesn’t really work like that.

Speaker 1: One of those myths out there about music perception is that there’s something magic about Mozart,

Speaker 2: but there is something magic about music’s power over our moon. It doesn’t have to be Mozart. It’s been well documented that music of any kind can help get anyone, including athletes, at the very top of their field, in the right frame of mind to perform. And longer term active participation in music can have incredible benefits. Kids who learn to make music early have advantages learning language. Our ability to remember music is also a fabulously effective teaching tool. And our a lot of synchronizing with music and each other confers social benefits.

Speaker 4: There’s a lot of interest in how music influences social cognition

Speaker 1: when you make music together with people or listen to music in a group. But it feels like you have some kind of understanding in that you’re really together

Speaker 4: in some powerful way. And there’s experimental evidence that people treat each other better.

Speaker 2: These benefits at music’s universality among humans raise even bigger questions.

Speaker 4: Human groups faced all kinds of challenges during evolution, and anything that would help promote cooperation in the group could potentially promote survival.

Speaker 2: Darwin had an evolutionary explanation for music to.

Speaker 4: Oh, this one. I love this one. Yeah. Musical notes and rhythm were first acquired for the sake of charming, the opposite sex

Speaker 2: like a peacock. That beautiful tail isn’t necessarily helping the bird survive, but it might have signaled something like that at first.

Speaker 1: But often when that’s the case, you can see some kind of progression of an ability as you get closer to the evolutionary tree to humans, that maybe there’ll be more musical ability. But that really doesn’t seem to be the case in some clear way

Speaker 2: in the animal world. Musicality is all over the map. We’re only just starting to find out if our love for rhythm, repetition and harmony evolved gradually through the other primates. And the search has connected researchers from an incredibly broad array of fields. They mostly consider their search for answers to be in its infancy. Chen didn’t have to live too long without music, within a few weeks, her brain healed.

Speaker 3: What we think in a simplistic way is that these circuits are temporarily inhibited and that it takes the brains of readjusting or some learning.

Speaker 5: Once I was back at home, I could understand music again, like I could hear it, but I couldn’t make music. Procedurally, I still knew how to make music, but I didn’t know how to use my ears to navigate making the song. I decided I would wait. Then a couple of weeks later, I went back in, overwhelmed with emotion. And made the song that was amazing, and it wasn’t that the song was just amazing, I was able to mix it and make it sound good to. I never worked on a song for so long in my life.

Speaker 3: Within three months, he was back performing at a very high level and entertaining and producing.

Speaker 5: I wanted to live every moment like it was the last day I’d be able to make music again.

Speaker 2: It’s easy to forget that all of us have a superpower and having musicality, we can use it to learn, feel, remember and connect.

Speaker 1: Just looking at the power that music does have, the universality means that regardless of its evolutionary history, we can learn something really important about what it means to be human.

Speaker 5: It still brings back all the joy I have and being able to share with people today.

Speaker 2: And the trick to making any sound music play it again and listen closer.

Speaker 4: I think the fact that music gives us such intense pleasure in telling us something I wish wants us to do.

Unidentified: He’s here with me right now, but

Speaker 2: I’ll be glad to be alive. It’s.

Speaker 1: flick the switch with sound signals exactly the same. Yeah, the experience feels really different,

Speaker 2: but this is just the start of the mystery of music. It can help people relearn how to speak. Oh, you can help patients with movement disorders like Parkinson’s disease move more fluidly.

Speaker 3: I just naturally respond to the music.

Speaker 2: Music behaves like a powerful drug on the rest of us to

Speaker 1: similar areas activated that are activated during highly pleasurable experiences pertaining to food or sex or illicit drugs.

Speaker 2: It has a deep connection to our feelings.

Speaker 1: Music itself seems to be a cultural universal. You don’t know about any known human culture that doesn’t have something that we think about as music

Speaker 2: and we found musical instruments as old as human cave paintings. Nearly every person is born with a taste for music.

Speaker 4: But as far as we know, other primates don’t really share our sense of beat. They just don’t seem to get rhythm the same way we do.

Speaker 2: So what is music? Why is it so universal among humans? How does sound become something more? Well. A world without music is hard to imagine

Speaker 5: as we live our lives. There’s always music around us, too, whether it’s something playing out of someone’s car stereo on the street, the coffee house, you’re going to the mall, the radio, it’s always around us. It’s strange when it doesn’t exist at all.

Speaker 2: Jennifer Lee is a music producer and deejay known as Cookie Monster, and she’s one of extraordinarily few hearing people who’s ever experienced a world without music.

Speaker 5: I couldn’t tell that there is a melody. It just sounded like white noise or like loud metallic noise. It was sharp that if you can’t understand music, it just becomes noise.

Speaker 2: To understand why this experience is so rare, let’s go back to before John lost music.

Speaker 5: This is one of the most simple songs I’ve ever made,

Speaker 2: but hearing a simple song isn’t simple at all.

Speaker 1: Listening to music and especially making music draws on all kinds of different faculties

Speaker 2: before we hear it all. Music is just air

Speaker 4: down starts as air vibrations, which then move our ear drums and then little bones and then finally fluid in the cochlea and it triggers hair cells to fire. It’s really wonderfully complicated

Speaker 2: and a repeating sound creates one of the most basic aspects of music rhythm.

Speaker 5: I had it looping and then it created an energy or a vibe. I was like, this sounds deep

Speaker 4: in many parts of our auditory system are very ancient and are shared with a lot of other animals.

Speaker 2: Our reptilian brain, the brain stem and cerebellum help us create the rhythmic patterns necessary to walk. That’s widespread. But what’s incredibly rare is our ability to feel upbeat tempo beats per minute.

Speaker 5: It is the most simple, most basic rhythm in our life. It is how our heart beats higher BPM songs that are faster tends to make us move faster, raises our heartbeat. It goes back to the core of who we are.

Speaker 2: Try tapping along.

Speaker 4: We predict the timing of the metronome. Clicks or taps are like very close in time to the metronome. You can’t do that by waiting for the click. You’d be reacting in late

Speaker 2: rhesus monkeys just can’t do

Speaker 4: it with lots of training. Monkeys always seem to still react rather than predict.

Speaker 2: Feeling a beat requires strong connections between parts of the brain, which are very rare in the animal world. In fact, scientists weren’t sure that any other animals could move to a beat like we do until 2009.

Speaker 4: I was just amazed when I saw this video of a cockatoo seeming to move to the beat of music.

Speaker 2: Put on the Backstreet

Unidentified: Boys and back, oh, my.

Speaker 2: So Patel put together an experiment, could snowball match the song played at different tempos,

Speaker 4: and the bottom line was he did. And this provided the first experimental evidence that another animal could move to the beat of music.

Speaker 2: And now Snowball isn’t alone. Ronan, a sea lion in California, is the first non-human mammal confirmed to really groove to Earth, Wind and fire. Bonobos are close. Evolutionary cousins can tell if there is a beat, though the jury’s out if they can synchronize to it. But the ability to tap out a beat is only one part of music. It’s a sign of peace fast. Here it is, pitch.

Speaker 4: Sure, many other animals seem to perceive pitch in terms of individual tones. They probably perceive them like we do.

Speaker 2: Many species brains, including ours, have neurons that fire at the exact frequency of the sound coming in. If you place electrodes on these three spots in your head and listen to this, the electrical signal from those electrodes would sound like this, playing multiple pitches at the same time unlocks another feature of music harmony.

Speaker 1: All these kinds of cultures tend to recognize that this relationship is special.

Speaker 4: If you ask men and women to sing in unison, what typically happens is they actually sing an octave apart.

Speaker 2: Octaves are pitches with double or half the frequency of another.

Speaker 4: That kind of sense of equivalence is very widespread in human

Speaker 2: culture, and that special relationship might explain why the opening of this song is so memorable. Well. The first two notes are an octave, why were intervals like this one are crucial? Every culture divides the space between Octaves and Descamps. Most of us remember Melody by the relative pitch, the space in between notes like this melody starting on see my new

Speaker 3: friend, I hear you are coming to like

Speaker 2: me starting on an F. It still sounds like the same melody. My new

Speaker 3: five year you are come to like

Speaker 2: me. It’s just not like this for birds.

Speaker 4: You can train them to recognize melody a formality. Be no problem. You transpose those melodies, you move them up or down in pitch. They have no idea what those things are. They completely relearn them as if they’re brand new milanes. They don’t recognize them anymore.

Speaker 2: Then there’s tambour the quality of sound that distinguishes Petch if played on a bassoon, baritone sax, or for most people perceive timbre like they perceive color. It’s a thing you can name. Lots of animals can process one or more of these components. Some types of crabs and fireflies synchronize with each other, but only at one tempo, some birds like Snowball can feel a beat but have no understanding of relative pitch. Rhesus monkeys can understand active equivalents but can’t feel beat. Combined with our capacity for language and memory, only humans put the entire puzzle together.

Unidentified: Simple. It up right out of the park.

Speaker 2: How musicians assemble these pieces triggers another aspect of music that’s as far as we know, uniquely human. It’s deep connection to our feelings. Take the song Farakka. It’s in the major scale which in Western music is associated with happy feelings,

Speaker 4: other cultures have their own ways of expressing those mood differences that are built up on easily to our major and minor system.

Speaker 2: Listen to this Bollani scan.

Speaker 1: For a Balinese person, they will really think that is quite sad,

Speaker 2: major meaning happy and minor mean sad is not

Speaker 1: universal for a Western ear. It might sound pretty happy, but Balinese will associate that with ceremonial rites and

Speaker 2: particularly cremations, but meaning accumulating based on the scale system of your culture that is universal and that meaning is built over centuries. Monteverdi wrote his lament. OHDELA Ninfa in a hundreds with a base line simply descending the mire scattered in the hundreds of years since composer after composer has used the exact same base line to express lament. And with each repetition, its meaning grows

Speaker 5: down in New Orleans

Speaker 2: so that whenever you hear, it just gets a little more powerful. You know, I feel there’s something familiar about it, but something surprising to. We hear these melodies so often that the effect becomes immediate and unconscious, music connects so many abilities that it’s very hard to lose. Only an estimated one point five percent of people are born having trouble differentiating pitches. Far fewer have trouble feeling a beat and losing music perception altogether. That’s basically unheard of. In 2015, Chen noticed her body was behaving strangely.

Speaker 5: I had this weird symptom where I couldn’t feel my foot and it just didn’t exist. It felt like a ghost. But 10 years prior, there was one neurologist that thought I could have moyamoya.

Speaker 2: Moyamoya means a puff of smoke. It’s a very rare condition where blood flow to the brain is constricted.

Speaker 3: Here’s the carotid artery marker. You see it coming up. You see how it almost disappears here. It’s almost clotted off completely. And the artery that branch here is gone. She’s not getting enough blood flow to her brain.

Speaker 5: I didn’t know if I would die the next month or 10 years from that point. So I was diagnosed in December of 2015. And in January of 2016, I had two brain surgeries a week apart from each other.

Speaker 2: Two days after the first surgery, Jan noticed something was wrong.

Speaker 5: When I woke up, I couldn’t talk anymore. I also lost my comprehension of speech so I couldn’t talk, but also suddenly couldn’t understand anyone else talking.

Speaker 3: Imagine being in a foreign country and not understanding a word was being said to you.

Speaker 5: I’ll watch Portlandia bunch when I was in recovery through that show, I realized I didn’t understand music because I couldn’t understand the intro song. See, cognitively, I knew that it was a song and then it was a washed out song and it was a song that I liked, but it didn’t register the same way. I didn’t recognize it as music

Speaker 2: to cure Jens moyamoya disease, Dr. Steinback took an order from each side of Genscape and placed it on top of each side of Jen’s brain.

Speaker 5: That piece of artery that is laying on top of your brain goes down these roots and essentially now my brain is fed from the top down and instead from the bottom up.

Speaker 2: And these routes would have been going all over the

Speaker 3: brain, so the lower processing was intact, the sounds were getting in both for music and for language

Speaker 2: at the higher levels of processing, to understand music, to speak that require the cortex or

Speaker 3: God putting together the higher level circuits was not possible. It was very, very disturbing and upsetting to her.

Speaker 2: But far more common than losing music is using it to help recover something else that’s been lost.

Speaker 1: What is it? Oh, God tries to form jurors. This is what you tell us.

Speaker 2: Former U.S. Congresswoman Gabby Giffords had to relearn how to speak after a gunshot tore through the left side of her head without much. That’s nice areas critical for speech right here. But even if they’re damaged, it’s possible to retrain the other side of the brain where more of musical processing happens to take over.

Speaker 5: All right. Let’s come up with another little song.

Speaker 4: Some of these same patients who can’t get two or three words into a phrase can sometimes sing songs fluently. Like you wouldn’t even know there’s something

Speaker 2: wrong with you. Make me happy. Well, that’s

Speaker 1: the way people are taught to sing words while tapping and then gradually kind of piggyback on that ability.

Speaker 2: And music connects to movement. We actually register beaten our brains motor system. That’s likely why it can help people

Speaker 5: with movement disorders. There’s something about hearing the music that enables me to move in a way that I wouldn’t be able to on my own.

Speaker 2: These effects make music seem almost like a superpower. That’s led to some exuberant reporting about

Speaker 5: music and listening to classical music make

Speaker 3: children smarter. Why are hospitals across the nation handing out a million Mozart recordings a month? Why not all Mozart to add a point or two to the IQ?

Speaker 2: It doesn’t really work like that.

Speaker 1: One of those myths out there about music perception is that there’s something magic about Mozart,

Speaker 2: but there is something magic about music’s power over our moon. It doesn’t have to be Mozart. It’s been well documented that music of any kind can help get anyone, including athletes, at the very top of their field, in the right frame of mind to perform. And longer term active participation in music can have incredible benefits. Kids who learn to make music early have advantages learning language. Our ability to remember music is also a fabulously effective teaching tool. And our a lot of synchronizing with music and each other confers social benefits.

Speaker 4: There’s a lot of interest in how music influences social cognition

Speaker 1: when you make music together with people or listen to music in a group. But it feels like you have some kind of understanding in that you’re really together

Speaker 4: in some powerful way. And there’s experimental evidence that people treat each other better.

Speaker 2: These benefits at music’s universality among humans raise even bigger questions.

Speaker 4: Human groups faced all kinds of challenges during evolution, and anything that would help promote cooperation in the group could potentially promote survival.

Speaker 2: Darwin had an evolutionary explanation for music to.

Speaker 4: Oh, this one. I love this one. Yeah. Musical notes and rhythm were first acquired for the sake of charming, the opposite sex

Speaker 2: like a peacock. That beautiful tail isn’t necessarily helping the bird survive, but it might have signaled something like that at first.

Speaker 1: But often when that’s the case, you can see some kind of progression of an ability as you get closer to the evolutionary tree to humans, that maybe there’ll be more musical ability. But that really doesn’t seem to be the case in some clear way

Speaker 2: in the animal world. Musicality is all over the map. We’re only just starting to find out if our love for rhythm, repetition and harmony evolved gradually through the other primates. And the search has connected researchers from an incredibly broad array of fields. They mostly consider their search for answers to be in its infancy. Chen didn’t have to live too long without music, within a few weeks, her brain healed.

Speaker 3: What we think in a simplistic way is that these circuits are temporarily inhibited and that it takes the brains of readjusting or some learning.

Speaker 5: Once I was back at home, I could understand music again, like I could hear it, but I couldn’t make music. Procedurally, I still knew how to make music, but I didn’t know how to use my ears to navigate making the song. I decided I would wait. Then a couple of weeks later, I went back in, overwhelmed with emotion. And made the song that was amazing, and it wasn’t that the song was just amazing, I was able to mix it and make it sound good to. I never worked on a song for so long in my life.

Speaker 3: Within three months, he was back performing at a very high level and entertaining and producing.

Speaker 5: I wanted to live every moment like it was the last day I’d be able to make music again.

Speaker 2: It’s easy to forget that all of us have a superpower and having musicality, we can use it to learn, feel, remember and connect.

Speaker 1: Just looking at the power that music does have, the universality means that regardless of its evolutionary history, we can learn something really important about what it means to be human.

Speaker 5: It still brings back all the joy I have and being able to share with people today.

Speaker 2: And the trick to making any sound music play it again and listen closer.

Speaker 4: I think the fact that music gives us such intense pleasure in telling us something I wish wants us to do.

Unidentified: He’s here with me right now, but

Speaker 2: I’ll be glad to be alive. It’s.

Speaker 1: So one of the things we do is we’ll just play this sound sequence and then we ask them to rate on a scale from one to five how much it sounded exactly like environmental sound or exactly like music the first time. It sounds pretty straightforwardly like environmental sound to them. It’s like three or four repetitions in and everyone starts laughing. I mean, rating just gets higher and higher

Speaker 2: music starts a sound, but something happens in the brain and it transforms. Repetition is one thing that can

Speaker 1: flick the switch with sound signals exactly the same. Yeah, the experience feels really different,

Speaker 2: but this is just the start of the mystery of music. It can help people relearn how to speak. Oh, you can help patients with movement disorders like Parkinson’s disease move more fluidly.

Speaker 3: I just naturally respond to the music.

Speaker 2: Music behaves like a powerful drug on the rest of us to

Speaker 1: similar areas activated that are activated during highly pleasurable experiences pertaining to food or sex or illicit drugs.

Speaker 2: It has a deep connection to our feelings.

Speaker 1: Music itself seems to be a cultural universal. You don’t know about any known human culture that doesn’t have something that we think about as music

Speaker 2: and we found musical instruments as old as human cave paintings. Nearly every person is born with a taste for music.

Speaker 4: But as far as we know, other primates don’t really share our sense of beat. They just don’t seem to get rhythm the same way we do.

Speaker 2: So what is music? Why is it so universal among humans? How does sound become something more? Well. A world without music is hard to imagine

Speaker 5: as we live our lives. There’s always music around us, too, whether it’s something playing out of someone’s car stereo on the street, the coffee house, you’re going to the mall, the radio, it’s always around us. It’s strange when it doesn’t exist at all.

Speaker 2: Jennifer Lee is a music producer and deejay known as Cookie Monster, and she’s one of extraordinarily few hearing people who’s ever experienced a world without music.

Speaker 5: I couldn’t tell that there is a melody. It just sounded like white noise or like loud metallic noise. It was sharp that if you can’t understand music, it just becomes noise.

Speaker 2: To understand why this experience is so rare, let’s go back to before John lost music.

Speaker 5: This is one of the most simple songs I’ve ever made,

Speaker 2: but hearing a simple song isn’t simple at all.

Speaker 1: Listening to music and especially making music draws on all kinds of different faculties

Speaker 2: before we hear it all. Music is just air

Speaker 4: down starts as air vibrations, which then move our ear drums and then little bones and then finally fluid in the cochlea and it triggers hair cells to fire. It’s really wonderfully complicated

Speaker 2: and a repeating sound creates one of the most basic aspects of music rhythm.

Speaker 5: I had it looping and then it created an energy or a vibe. I was like, this sounds deep

Speaker 4: in many parts of our auditory system are very ancient and are shared with a lot of other animals.

Speaker 2: Our reptilian brain, the brain stem and cerebellum help us create the rhythmic patterns necessary to walk. That’s widespread. But what’s incredibly rare is our ability to feel upbeat tempo beats per minute.

Speaker 5: It is the most simple, most basic rhythm in our life. It is how our heart beats higher BPM songs that are faster tends to make us move faster, raises our heartbeat. It goes back to the core of who we are.

Speaker 2: Try tapping along.

Speaker 4: We predict the timing of the metronome. Clicks or taps are like very close in time to the metronome. You can’t do that by waiting for the click. You’d be reacting in late

Speaker 2: rhesus monkeys just can’t do

Speaker 4: it with lots of training. Monkeys always seem to still react rather than predict.

Speaker 2: Feeling a beat requires strong connections between parts of the brain, which are very rare in the animal world. In fact, scientists weren’t sure that any other animals could move to a beat like we do until 2009.

Speaker 4: I was just amazed when I saw this video of a cockatoo seeming to move to the beat of music.

Speaker 2: Put on the Backstreet

Unidentified: Boys and back, oh, my.

Speaker 2: So Patel put together an experiment, could snowball match the song played at different tempos,

Speaker 4: and the bottom line was he did. And this provided the first experimental evidence that another animal could move to the beat of music.

Speaker 2: And now Snowball isn’t alone. Ronan, a sea lion in California, is the first non-human mammal confirmed to really groove to Earth, Wind and fire. Bonobos are close. Evolutionary cousins can tell if there is a beat, though the jury’s out if they can synchronize to it. But the ability to tap out a beat is only one part of music. It’s a sign of peace fast. Here it is, pitch.

Speaker 4: Sure, many other animals seem to perceive pitch in terms of individual tones. They probably perceive them like we do.

Speaker 2: Many species brains, including ours, have neurons that fire at the exact frequency of the sound coming in. If you place electrodes on these three spots in your head and listen to this, the electrical signal from those electrodes would sound like this, playing multiple pitches at the same time unlocks another feature of music harmony.

Speaker 1: All these kinds of cultures tend to recognize that this relationship is special.

Speaker 4: If you ask men and women to sing in unison, what typically happens is they actually sing an octave apart.

Speaker 2: Octaves are pitches with double or half the frequency of another.

Speaker 4: That kind of sense of equivalence is very widespread in human

Speaker 2: culture, and that special relationship might explain why the opening of this song is so memorable. Well. The first two notes are an octave, why were intervals like this one are crucial? Every culture divides the space between Octaves and Descamps. Most of us remember Melody by the relative pitch, the space in between notes like this melody starting on see my new

Speaker 3: friend, I hear you are coming to like

Speaker 2: me starting on an F. It still sounds like the same melody. My new

Speaker 3: five year you are come to like

Speaker 2: me. It’s just not like this for birds.

Speaker 4: You can train them to recognize melody a formality. Be no problem. You transpose those melodies, you move them up or down in pitch. They have no idea what those things are. They completely relearn them as if they’re brand new milanes. They don’t recognize them anymore.

Speaker 2: Then there’s tambour the quality of sound that distinguishes Petch if played on a bassoon, baritone sax, or for most people perceive timbre like they perceive color. It’s a thing you can name. Lots of animals can process one or more of these components. Some types of crabs and fireflies synchronize with each other, but only at one tempo, some birds like Snowball can feel a beat but have no understanding of relative pitch. Rhesus monkeys can understand active equivalents but can’t feel beat. Combined with our capacity for language and memory, only humans put the entire puzzle together.

Unidentified: Simple. It up right out of the park.

Speaker 2: How musicians assemble these pieces triggers another aspect of music that’s as far as we know, uniquely human. It’s deep connection to our feelings. Take the song Farakka. It’s in the major scale which in Western music is associated with happy feelings,

Speaker 4: other cultures have their own ways of expressing those mood differences that are built up on easily to our major and minor system.

Speaker 2: Listen to this Bollani scan.

Speaker 1: For a Balinese person, they will really think that is quite sad,

Speaker 2: major meaning happy and minor mean sad is not

Speaker 1: universal for a Western ear. It might sound pretty happy, but Balinese will associate that with ceremonial rites and

Speaker 2: particularly cremations, but meaning accumulating based on the scale system of your culture that is universal and that meaning is built over centuries. Monteverdi wrote his lament. OHDELA Ninfa in a hundreds with a base line simply descending the mire scattered in the hundreds of years since composer after composer has used the exact same base line to express lament. And with each repetition, its meaning grows

Speaker 5: down in New Orleans

Speaker 2: so that whenever you hear, it just gets a little more powerful. You know, I feel there’s something familiar about it, but something surprising to. We hear these melodies so often that the effect becomes immediate and unconscious, music connects so many abilities that it’s very hard to lose. Only an estimated one point five percent of people are born having trouble differentiating pitches. Far fewer have trouble feeling a beat and losing music perception altogether. That’s basically unheard of. In 2015, Chen noticed her body was behaving strangely.

Speaker 5: I had this weird symptom where I couldn’t feel my foot and it just didn’t exist. It felt like a ghost. But 10 years prior, there was one neurologist that thought I could have moyamoya.

Speaker 2: Moyamoya means a puff of smoke. It’s a very rare condition where blood flow to the brain is constricted.

Speaker 3: Here’s the carotid artery marker. You see it coming up. You see how it almost disappears here. It’s almost clotted off completely. And the artery that branch here is gone. She’s not getting enough blood flow to her brain.

Speaker 5: I didn’t know if I would die the next month or 10 years from that point. So I was diagnosed in December of 2015. And in January of 2016, I had two brain surgeries a week apart from each other.

Speaker 2: Two days after the first surgery, Jan noticed something was wrong.

Speaker 5: When I woke up, I couldn’t talk anymore. I also lost my comprehension of speech so I couldn’t talk, but also suddenly couldn’t understand anyone else talking.

Speaker 3: Imagine being in a foreign country and not understanding a word was being said to you.

Speaker 5: I’ll watch Portlandia bunch when I was in recovery through that show, I realized I didn’t understand music because I couldn’t understand the intro song. See, cognitively, I knew that it was a song and then it was a washed out song and it was a song that I liked, but it didn’t register the same way. I didn’t recognize it as music

Speaker 2: to cure Jens moyamoya disease, Dr. Steinback took an order from each side of Genscape and placed it on top of each side of Jen’s brain.

Speaker 5: That piece of artery that is laying on top of your brain goes down these roots and essentially now my brain is fed from the top down and instead from the bottom up.

Speaker 2: And these routes would have been going all over the

Speaker 3: brain, so the lower processing was intact, the sounds were getting in both for music and for language

Speaker 2: at the higher levels of processing, to understand music, to speak that require the cortex or

Speaker 3: God putting together the higher level circuits was not possible. It was very, very disturbing and upsetting to her.

Speaker 2: But far more common than losing music is using it to help recover something else that’s been lost.

Speaker 1: What is it? Oh, God tries to form jurors. This is what you tell us.

Speaker 2: Former U.S. Congresswoman Gabby Giffords had to relearn how to speak after a gunshot tore through the left side of her head without much. That’s nice areas critical for speech right here. But even if they’re damaged, it’s possible to retrain the other side of the brain where more of musical processing happens to take over.

Speaker 5: All right. Let’s come up with another little song.

Speaker 4: Some of these same patients who can’t get two or three words into a phrase can sometimes sing songs fluently. Like you wouldn’t even know there’s something

Speaker 2: wrong with you. Make me happy. Well, that’s

Speaker 1: the way people are taught to sing words while tapping and then gradually kind of piggyback on that ability.

Speaker 2: And music connects to movement. We actually register beaten our brains motor system. That’s likely why it can help people

Speaker 5: with movement disorders. There’s something about hearing the music that enables me to move in a way that I wouldn’t be able to on my own.

Speaker 2: These effects make music seem almost like a superpower. That’s led to some exuberant reporting about

Speaker 5: music and listening to classical music make

Speaker 3: children smarter. Why are hospitals across the nation handing out a million Mozart recordings a month? Why not all Mozart to add a point or two to the IQ?

Speaker 2: It doesn’t really work like that.

Speaker 1: One of those myths out there about music perception is that there’s something magic about Mozart,

Speaker 2: but there is something magic about music’s power over our moon. It doesn’t have to be Mozart. It’s been well documented that music of any kind can help get anyone, including athletes, at the very top of their field, in the right frame of mind to perform. And longer term active participation in music can have incredible benefits. Kids who learn to make music early have advantages learning language. Our ability to remember music is also a fabulously effective teaching tool. And our a lot of synchronizing with music and each other confers social benefits.

Speaker 4: There’s a lot of interest in how music influences social cognition

Speaker 1: when you make music together with people or listen to music in a group. But it feels like you have some kind of understanding in that you’re really together

Speaker 4: in some powerful way. And there’s experimental evidence that people treat each other better.

Speaker 2: These benefits at music’s universality among humans raise even bigger questions.

Speaker 4: Human groups faced all kinds of challenges during evolution, and anything that would help promote cooperation in the group could potentially promote survival.

Speaker 2: Darwin had an evolutionary explanation for music to.

Speaker 4: Oh, this one. I love this one. Yeah. Musical notes and rhythm were first acquired for the sake of charming, the opposite sex

Speaker 2: like a peacock. That beautiful tail isn’t necessarily helping the bird survive, but it might have signaled something like that at first.

Speaker 1: But often when that’s the case, you can see some kind of progression of an ability as you get closer to the evolutionary tree to humans, that maybe there’ll be more musical ability. But that really doesn’t seem to be the case in some clear way

Speaker 2: in the animal world. Musicality is all over the map. We’re only just starting to find out if our love for rhythm, repetition and harmony evolved gradually through the other primates. And the search has connected researchers from an incredibly broad array of fields. They mostly consider their search for answers to be in its infancy. Chen didn’t have to live too long without music, within a few weeks, her brain healed.

Speaker 3: What we think in a simplistic way is that these circuits are temporarily inhibited and that it takes the brains of readjusting or some learning.

Speaker 5: Once I was back at home, I could understand music again, like I could hear it, but I couldn’t make music. Procedurally, I still knew how to make music, but I didn’t know how to use my ears to navigate making the song. I decided I would wait. Then a couple of weeks later, I went back in, overwhelmed with emotion. And made the song that was amazing, and it wasn’t that the song was just amazing, I was able to mix it and make it sound good to. I never worked on a song for so long in my life.

Speaker 3: Within three months, he was back performing at a very high level and entertaining and producing.

Speaker 5: I wanted to live every moment like it was the last day I’d be able to make music again.

Speaker 2: It’s easy to forget that all of us have a superpower and having musicality, we can use it to learn, feel, remember and connect.

Speaker 1: Just looking at the power that music does have, the universality means that regardless of its evolutionary history, we can learn something really important about what it means to be human.

Speaker 5: It still brings back all the joy I have and being able to share with people today.

Speaker 2: And the trick to making any sound music play it again and listen closer.

Speaker 4: I think the fact that music gives us such intense pleasure in telling us something I wish wants us to do.

Unidentified: He’s here with me right now, but

Speaker 2: I’ll be glad to be alive. It’s.

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